Double Marker Test - Indications, Normal Range, Cost In Details

Double marker test

Double marker test

Pregnancy and being a pregnant woman are very precious moments of her life. It is a big pleasurable for her families. Every single moment is important during pregnancy. Most parents decorate their rooms with baby's things like a baby bed, bottles, pictures, toys, dolls, etc. They make their lives with beautiful dreams about their baby. Every couple wants that may their baby to be healthy from mental and physical. All want their child will be a big star, Doctor, cricketer, scientist, teacher, etc. But all dreams will be fulfilled if their child is healthy and normal. In some cases, some babies have mental and physical disorders. Now, I'm going to tell you by writing about how we can know these disorders? A test has known as a double marker test in medical science. We know 92% result by this test. Let's know what is this!!


What is the Double Marker Test?

This is a test that helps us to know about baby's disorders or abnormalities. It is a test about chromosomal abnormalities of babies. This is a screening test. A double marker test is done through a blood test of the mother's blood. There has 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes in the normal human body. If the baby has chromosomal abnormalities like down syndrome, Edward syndrome, then we can identify these by double marker test. The Double marker test is generally done in the first trimester of pregnancy. In a word 9 to 13 weeks of pregnancy. Most in 11-13 weeks. You have to consult your doctor.

The Double marker test is not a confirmed test, it is a screening test. This is not a final test.

Double marker test

Double marker test

Why is done Double Marker Test is done? / Importance of Double Marker Test:
This test is a screening test. It is done to screen the fetus to identify any malformations of chromosomes. If any genetic abnormalities have occurred, then this test will detect those abnormalities. Doctors can identify both of mental and health disorders by double marker test. Parents can know their baby's condition and decide their decision.

Benefits of Double marker test: 
The test is beneficial for you and your baby. It's urgent for your future. Let's know what are those benefits. It detects your baby's mental and health abnormalities. Generally, it detects trisomy means extra chromosome presents in genes.

      • Downs syndrome ( Trisomy: 21 No chromosome) 
     
      • Edwards syndrome ( Trisomy:18 No chromosome) 
     
      • Patau syndrome ( Trisomy:13 No chromosome)


It identifies your baby's condition. Now we have to know what is these three syndromes. Among these three down syndrome is most common. Let's know about these syndromes in briefly.

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Down Syndrome: 

Down syndrome is an autosomal disorder. This occurs for trisomy (2n+1)of chromosome 21. When the number of chromosome 21 is three in autosome. The normal chromosome number is 46 ( 2n=46). In down syndrome, chromosome numbers become 47. Then the total chromosome number is 45A+XX.

Some syndromes of down syndrome are mentioned below -

      • Small head, Fatuous child

      • Epicanthic folds in eye

      • Shorthand. Short height

      • Mouth open for all time, Saliva is excreted

      • Risk of heart diseases

Double Marker Test
Double Marker Test

Edward Syndrome:
 Edward syndrome is the cause of the trisomy of chromosome 18. An extra chromosome 18 presents in the body. Some syndromes of down syndrome are mentioned in below.

      • Mental disabilities or abnormalities

      • Heart defect

      • Small jaw

      • Defected some organs like kidneys, lungs, stomach

Patau Syndrome: Patau syndrome happens for the trisomy of chromosome 13. An extra chromosome 13 is present in the body. Some syndromes of down syndrome are mentioned in below.

      • Small head.

      • Clenched hand

      • Cleft lip

      • Extra toes/ fingers

      • Mental abnormalities 

To whom does the Double Marker Test?
This test is for pregnant women. Every woman can do this test. But some women have major chances to give birth to a child who has mental and health abnormalities. Those women stay in one section of risk. This section has three factors.

1. Age > 35 or age = 35

2. Diabetes history 

3. Family genetic disorders

But, earlier it was thought that only these women give abnormal children who belong in greater equals to 35 age. It has been seen that below 35, 30,25 ages women also give birth to those children.

How is the test done?
Generally, at first, an ultrasound is done which is called NT Scan, it identifies mental disorders of the baby. The doctor can get a 95% result from this ultrasound. The Double marker test is done through a blood test. Blood is taken from the mother. This blood is taken from a vein of the arm. This test has two parameters which are Free Beta HCG and PAPPA-A. As it has two parameters so its name is double marker test or dual marker test. After taking these two tests (ultrasound and blood test), doctors submit these in software to generate the result. There is no need to stay in an empty stomach before doing this test. Listen to your doctor's advice.
The test is done for measuring the levels of two hormones. Two hormones are Beta HCG and PAPPA-A.

Double marker test

Double marker test


Free Beta HCG: Full form of Free Beta HCG is Beta Human chorionic Gonadotropin. It is also known as the pregnancy hormone. This hormone is produced from the placenta. The level of Free Beta HCG includes 8 to 10 weeks during your pregnancy. After it decreases and comes in a stable stage.

PAPPA-A: Full form of PAPPA-A is Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein. This hormone is produced from the placenta. This is a protein. It increases in the mother's blood until childbirth. Levels of PAPPA-A enhances during pregnancy.

The normal value of Double Marker Test:
The normal range or normal value of Free Beta HCG is 25700 to 288000 mlU per ml. This is for all ages of pregnant women.

How to Interpret the result if Double Marker Test report? / analysis of the Double Marker Test report :
If levels of free Beta HCG increase means the high level of Beta HCG and level of PAPPA-A decreases means a low level of PAPPA-A become the result of downs syndrome. USG parameters also combined. The result has two directions which are screen positive and screen negative. This result doesn't correct 100% because its a screening test. It shows the chances of the disorder. Screen positive shows that your baby has a disorder and a high risk of pregnancy. Screen negative shows that your baby has no disorder of mental and health, low risk of pregnancy.

Double marker test

Double marker test

• The ratios are given below:
Down syndrome: 1:250
Edward/ Patau syndrome: 1:100

These two rows show that high risk. 1st ratio ( Down syndrome) means 1 child out of 250 has a possibility of health and mind abnormalities. Second ratio ( Edward/ Patau syndrome) that 1 child out of 100 has a possibility of developing disorders or abnormalities. These two indicate screen positive results.

• The ratios are given below:
Down syndrome: 1:100000
Edward/ Patau syndrome: 1:64000

These two rows show that low risk. 1st ratio ( Down syndrome) means 1 child out of 100000 has a possibility of health and mind abnormalities. The second ratio( Edward/ Patau syndrome) shows that 1 child out of 64000 has a possibility of developing disorders or abnormalities. These two indicate screen negative results.


Steps at Low risk:
If your result screen negative then bring a smile on face and happy for your good health of the child. Your baby has less chance of disorders or abnormalities. Your baby is safe. Here is not needed to take quick action. You should listen to your doctor's advice.

What should do if the result is positive? / Steps at High risk :
You have to understand that it is not finished with life. It makes you strong and take the right decision. If your baby has these abnormalities then, it is your choice what you will do. Your baby is also cute and sweet as like other babies. Your baby is not a burden in this society and the world. But sometimes you may feel pain in mind for your baby. Because your baby has some abnormalities which are not matched as other healthy babies. Doctors recommend tests to do and take further actions if your result is positive. The recommended test is amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Doctors suggest other options, you should take a good decision.

Advantage of Double Marker Test:
Double Marker Test has an advantage for parents and families. It gives time to take a decision for their future. It should be done as soon as possible. Otherwise, if the time increases, the mother will be in trouble. Mother's compassion grows more.

Double marker test

Double marker test


Cost of Double Marker Test: This test is a little expensive. This fully depends on your area, city, hospitals. The Double marker test is not done in every lab. Approximately cost starts from 1000 to 5000 and even 5000 up ( India ). Cost depends on the development of the lab, Country and, etc. So, there are no fixed prices. Cost varies for different cities, labs, etc.


Please consult your doctor. Listen to your doctor's advice. Clear your all problems by sharing everything with your doctor. The doctor will suggest then do all. Don't make a decision quickly, take time, and do. Don't give up, all will be good.


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